Wachizungu, Bachizungu, etc.
“people of the aimless wandering”
Dating back to the 18th century, this wonderful word literally translated meant “someone who roams around aimlessly” or “aimless wanderer.”
I am considering it as a possibility for a pseudonym for reasons I’ll set out later. The term was first used in the African Great Lakes region to describe European explorers in the 18th century, apparently as a result of their propensity to get lost in their wanderings in Africa. The word Muzungu comes from Kiswahili, where ‘zungu’ or ‘zunguka’ is the word for spinning around on the same spot. That dizzy lost look was perfected by the first white people arriving in the African Great Lakes. Muzunguzungu is Kiswahili for a dizzy person. The term is now used to refer to “someone with white skin” or “white skin”and has also come to mean people who adopt the Western culture, cuisine and lifestyle.
Mzungu can be used in an affectionate or insulting way. In Kinyarwanda and Kirundi, European people are also known as rutuku which means “red” (after their skin colour). The underlying tone for “rutuku” though is in reference to aggression. Though the literal translation is “red”, the underlying translation is “aggressor”, referring to colonialism and the plundering of local resources by the “white people.” Whilst mzungu generally refers to a white person, mlungu refers to the white foam ejected from an animal’s vagina when in heat and is only used in a derogatory sense. The term is similar to “vloeibees”, meaning flow-beast, in Afrikaans.
muzunguzungu is a wonderful word at so many levels. It has a musical quality to it, like a buzzing mbira with a delightful repetition both typographically and phonetically:
U-U-U-U-U Z-Z G-G N-N
M U Z U N G U Z U N G U
It’s etymology is both delightful and mischievous – and mildly insulting too: the dizzy lost look that characterised the early explorers, imperialists, soldiers, merchants, missionaries, slavers and settlers from Europe is still there in the bewildered-look of present-day pink-skinned (see rutuku above) and ‘white-socks & sandles’ tourists to Africa. The derogatory mlungu shows how language can be a weapon of derision and resistance – and while I am no language expert it seems to me mlungu is latent in muzunguzungu – but not disclosed. I suppose I am drawn in an english, slightly self-demeaning way to muzunguzungu. I am also conscious that by assuming a distinctly african word I may be accused of misrepresenting myself. Well there’d be nothing dramatic in that for we are all a jumble of conflicting masks – and having been born in Africa at least a tiny bit of me can lay claim to being African, as a child born in Wales of Nigerian parents could lay claim to being Welsh I suppose.
I am suspicious of that the word “Ubuntu”. It seems to have been hijacked by my white compatriots – for all manner of commercial and “rainbow-nation-building” reasons. From “Ubuntu commercial Linux offerings” to “Ubuntu Jacuzzi’s”, “Ubuntu caravans” and “Ubuntu braai accessories”, the ubiquity of the word erodes it’s meaning through overuse. Perhaps soon we’ll be able to buy “Ubuntu ammunition” without any sense of irony. My guess is that the adoption of such words and our eagerness to incorporate them into our vocabularies (or logos, or motivational seminars) is, at some level, reflective of the white man’s unconscious desire to be wanted in Africa, to overcome his alienated dizziness as it were, to not be seen as rutuku and god-forbid, mlungu. So we name our holiday homes with a suitably african-sounding name and think we have become african, in much the same way that by wearing a Jeep-branded khaki shirt I enter a fantasy of cool Vietnam GI’s and rugged good looks – Camel man style. It feels good, even if It’s just a sort of ameliorative fantasy.